WP4 reviews measures and policies aiming to wrestle with urban sprawl,analyses
case studies in Europe and in the USA, an investigates the institutional
and organisational barriers to the implementation of these policies. Another
goal of the review is to support the selection of measures that will be
simulated and assessed in WP5.
The review of policy measures is based on 3 sources:
Task 1: bibliographical review of policies: review
of measures and policies, on the basis of, research studies, scientific
literature and urban planning literature, etc;
Task 2: review of measures planned or implemented
in the case cities and in other selected cities in Europe and in the
Task 2: interviews of urban and transport planners
in the United States working within local authorities: many American
cities have been subject to urban sprawl for a longer time that those
in Europe. American urban planners have therefore designed and already
tested numerous policies aiming to tackle urban sprawl; whatever the
dissimilarities between American and European cities, the US experience
is of great value to European urban planners;
The review includes the description of various policy measures implemented
in the case cities, the expected or observed results where such results
are available, an analysis of the actors and financial mechanisms involved.
WP4 also includes a review of institutional barriers to implementation
processes (Task 3). In many cases, institutional players might constitute
a barrier to the implementation of policies. Sometimes, they might be
in competition against each other to capture local development processes.
Often, the problem is in relation with the distribution of competences:
different institutional players have competences on different planning
fields, such as transport or land-use or the environment. This also highlights
the need for new institutional tools to tackle urban sprawl.