Some Other Relevant Timelines and Histories :

Some Useful Web Sites on GIS History :
  • GIS History Project, a vital Web site to consult.
  • History of GIS,course module from the NCGIA Core Curriculum at the University of BC Department of Geography.
  • Evolution of the Technology, a chapter from "Geographic Information Systems: A Guide to the Technology", on the PlanGraphics web site.
  • A Time Line of Past Events and Forces in GIS, produced at National Academy of Science Mapping workshop on The Future of Spatial Data and Society. (Beware some of the dates on this timeline are not correct!)
Key References : Here are some of the key academic references on the history of GIS.

  • Cerny, J.W. 1972, Use of the SYMAP computer mapping program. Journal of Geography, Vol. 71, pp. 167-174.
  • Coppock J.T. & Rhind D.W., 1991, "The History of GIS". In Maguire D.J., Goodchild M.F., and Rhind D.W. (editors) Geographical Information Systems : Principles and Applications, Volume 1, pages 21-43.
  • Chrisman, N. 1988, The risks of software innovation: a case study of the Harvard Lab. American Cartographer, Vol. 15, pp. 291-300.
  • The History of Geographic Information Systems : Perspectives from the Pioneers by Timothy W. Foresman (Editor) 320 pages (November 1997) Prentice Hall; ISBN: 0138621454.
  • Mark D.M., Chrisman N., et al, 1997, "The GIS History Project", Summary Paper presented at the UCGIS Summer Assembly, Bar Harbor, USA, June 1997.
  • Special issue of The American Cartographer, 1988, Vol. 15, no. 3.
  • Steinitz C., 1993, a three part series in GIS Europe, "GIS : A Personal Historical Perspective" (June issue), "A Framework for Theory and Practice in Landscape Planning" (July issue) and "The Changing Face of GIS from 1965-1993" (September issue).
  • Tomlinson R.F., 1987, "Current and Potential Uses of Geographical Information System : The North American Experience", International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, Vol. 1, pages 203-218.