Hawara after the Middle Kingdom

1550 BC -1069 BC New Kingdom, burials in the north-eastern cemetery area.

1069 BC - 664 BC Third Intermediate Period, no published sources securely dated to this period: the practice of burying crocodiles in the Middle Kingdom tombs at Hawara may have begun around 700 BC, because the general practice of animal burials is first attested at this time (at Abydos) - however, animal and bird mass burials continued as late as the early Roman Period, and the crocodile burials at Hawara have not yet been dated.

664 BC - 332 BC Late Period and Persian Period, burials in the north-eastern cemetery area: Herodotus visited the site in the fifth century BC.

332 BC - 30 BC Macedonian and Ptolemaic Periods, burials over the northern area: crocodile burials of Ptolemaic date included covers made from papyri, from which Petrie and others recovered a rich haul of ancient Greek documents. The destruction of the Labyrinth may date in part to the reign of Ptolemy II, under whom the city of Shedyt (Greek Crocodilopolis, modern Medinet el-Fayum) was renamed after his sister-wife Arsinoe - the massive Ptolemaic building programme at Arsinoe marks the logical point for removal of Middle Kingdom columns and blocks from Hawara. The village south of the pyramid perhaps came into existence at this time.

30 BC - AD 641 Roman and Byzantine Periods, burials over the northern area, village over the southern area: the burials of the first century AD are famous for the encaustic mummy portraits on wooden panels in classical Roman style. Some burials included mummies with portraits alongside others with the more costly gilt masks. The chapels above the burial chambers took various forms: Petrie recorded one sufficiently clearly to allow a reconstruction of its original appearance.

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